پیش بینی بهزیستی روان‌شناختی دانش‌آموزان با توجه به ادراک از والدین با واسطه‌گری انگیزش

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر پیش‌بینی بهزیستی روان‌شناختی (شاخص هدفمندی در زندگی) در دانش‌آموزان بر اساس ادراک از والدین و باورهای انگیزشی به روش تحلیل مسیر بود. برای این منظور 875 دانش آموز (451دخترو 424پسر) دبیرستان‌های شهر شیراز به روش نمونه گیری خوشه‌ای چند مرحله‌ای انتخاب و به پرسشنامه‌های بهزیستی روان‌شناختی، باورهای انگیزشی و ادراک از والدین پاسخ دادند. نتایج پژوهش بطورکلی نشان دادکه بهزیستی روان‌شناختی دانش‌آموزان تحت تاثیر ادراک از والدین و باورهای انگیزشی قرار دارد. بدین صورت که ادراک از کنترل والدین به صورت منفی و ادراک استقلال از والدین به صورت مثبت اثر مستقیم و غیر مستقیم بر بهزیستی دارد. همچنین انگیزش درونی به صورت مثبت و بی‌انگیزشی به صورت منفی با بهزیستی رابطه دارد و باورهای انگیزشی می‌توانند نقش واسطه‌ای ایفا نمایند. مدل پژوهش حاضر با داده‌ها برازش مناسب داشت. در ادامه به بحث درباره کاربرد نتایج به همراه پیشنهادها و محدودیت‌های پژوهش پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Argyle, M. (2001). The psychology of happiness (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors’ autonomy support and students’ autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740–756.
Burton, K., & Lydon, J. (2006). The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on well-being and performance: prospective, Experimental, and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(4), 750-762.
Cheng, H., & Furnham, A. (2003). Dimension of personality, domain of aspiration, and subject well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 921-942.
Chirkov, V., & Ryan, R. (2001). Parent and teacher autonomy-support in Russian and U.S. adolescence:Common effects on well-being and academic motivation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(5), 618-635.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109-134.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008a). Self-Determination Theory: A macro theory of human motivation, development, and health.Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 182–185.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008b). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 14-23.
Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Leone, D. R., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former Eastern Bloc country. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 930-942.
Gifford, M. E., & Brownell, C. A. (2003). Childhood peer relationships: social acceptance, friendships, and peer networks. Journal of school psychology, 41, 235-248.
Grolnick,W. S., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. (1991). Inner resources for school achievement: Motivational mediators of children’s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 508–517.
Guay, F., Vallerand, R. J., & Blanchard, C. (2000). On the assessment of situational intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Motivation and Emotion, 24(3), 175-213.
Hill, N. E., & Craft, S. A. (2003). Parent-school involvement and school performance: Mediated pathways among socioeconomically comparable African American and Euro-American families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 74-83.
Jeon, S. (2007). The effects of parents motivating style on adolescence school outcomes and well-being. A test of self-determination theory in a Korean context. Unpublished dissertation in the University of Iowa.
Miquelon, P., & Vallerand, R. (2008). Goal motives, well-Being, and physical health: An integrative model. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 241–249.
Niemiec, C., Lynch, M., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2006). The antecedents and consequence of autonomous self-regulation for college: A self-determination theory perspective on socialization. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 761-775.
Patrick, H., Knee, C. R., & Canevello, A. (2007). The role of need fulfillment in relationship functioning and well-being: A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 434–457.
Ratelle, C., Larose, S., & Sencal, C. (2005). Perception of parental involvement and support as predictors of college students' persistence in a science curriculum. Journal of family Psychology, 19(2), 286-293.
Reeve, J. (2006). Teachers as facilitators: what autonomy-supportive teachers do and why their students benefit. The Elementary School Journal, 106(3), 225-236.
Robins,R.J.(1994). An assessment of perception of parental autonomy support and control:child and parent correlates.Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Rochester,NY.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaemonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141-166.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of happiness studies, 9, 139-170.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). A self-determination theory approach to psychotherapy: The motivational basis for effective change. Canadian Psychology, 49, 186–193.
Ryff, C.D., (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.
Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2006). Best news yet on the six-factor model of well-being. Social Science Research, 35, 1103–1119.
Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Love, G. D. (2004). Positive health: connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 359, 1383–1394.
Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new Positive Psychology to realise your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press.
Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 571–581.
Skinner, E. A., Johnson, S. & Snyder, T. (2005). Six dimensions of parenting: A motivational model. Parenting: Science and Practice, 5(2), 175-225.
Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2002). The handbook of Positive Psychology. New York:Oxford University Press.
Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Antecedents and outcomes of self-determination in 3 life domains: The role of parents' and teachers’ autonomy support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(6), 589-604.
Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaemonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678-691.